Friday, December 1, 2017

The Reckoning- The Conversation on the Treatment of Women, and Our Responsibilities as Teachers

A "reckoning."  I'll apologize to my 12th grade English teacher for starting with a definition, but "reckoning" is defined as "a settling of accounts", a moment where someone must take responsibility for realities.  I've heard this term used quite a bit lately to describe this moment in which, seemingly almost daily, allegations of sexual harassment or abuse are being leveled, and major names are falling left and right.  In truth, I think this term fits the time.  Or at least I hope it does.  A reckoning implies reflection, and as males, fathers, uncles, teachers, men need to reflect on attitudes, and how we think of/speak about/treat women.

I remember vividly how I felt last year when I heard the now infamous "Access Hollywood" tape, in which a man bragged about sexually assaulting a woman.  I remember...disgust.  I still feel disgust.  And as angry as that video made me, I remember being even more frustrated at the excuses made to somehow dismiss this kind of behavior.  I remember thinking- "How does someone get away with saying something like that?" And I remember, as I proceeded further in judgment, the personal reflection it sparked in me.  What was I contributing to this environment, this reality?  A reckoning.

In a country facing countless issues, this has troubled me the most.  Perhaps because I am a husband, a father to two young men, a teacher to young men and women I love like my own.  Maybe because I am a man.  Maybe because of the difficult questions this reckoning poses- Can we project ourselves as an image of moral superiority when we are still trying to figure out right from wrong?  What does it truly mean to be a "man"?  What are my responsibilities as a father?  What are my responsibilities as a teacher?

Perhaps unsurprising in a country that took over 140 years after its founding to figure out women could handle voting, we seem to have become quite good at excusing the mistreatment of women.  This mentality has to stop.  When Trump's "Access Hollywood" tape came out, I heard from more than one person "boys will be boys"; I heard this man dismiss it as "locker room talk".  This mentality has to stop.

Before I proceed further, please understand this reckoning has not spared me.  Over the past several months I have been forced to re-evaluate my actions, my sense of humor, my culpability, past and present.  In my youth, did I engage in what might be termed as "locker room" banter- yes (although I can safely say nothing to the level of our President).  I know, and can say confidently, that this is the extent of my part, but we cannot accept this as ok.  I have been forced to think about what I say, do, and think.  And while I'm ashamed of certain things I have, in the past, found humorous, this reckoning had to apply to myself.  I think about this as I consider solutions, and my responsibility.

The nation-wide reckoning must make its way into every mind, home, and workplace, including our schools.  I am a teacher.  I am a male teacher.  As a teacher I am not simply tasked with teaching my students about the Civil War.  I am also guiding my students in life preparation.  And our students are emerging into a country in which this reckoning is taking place, where serious questions are, and should be, asked about how a woman should be treated.  Examples that might normally serve as role models for our young men are no longer role models.  Our students cannot look at their leaders and find inspiration.  Our students will have trouble finding that in our celebrities and athletes.  Let them find it in us.  We are not in the business of sculpting their beliefs on things like politics.  But we have to understand that there a few universal truths out there.  Racism is wrong.  Sexism is wrong.  Women deserve to be treated with respect.  Our female colleagues must feel safe and protected in their work environment.  Our female students must feel safe and protected in their school.  Our male students must see examples of good men in their school leaders, and this must extend both to what we project publically and how we behave privately.  We cannot demand respect in front of our classrooms and school, and then not extend it when we think we are talking with friends.  The truth is that an entire generation of men must relearn the definition of what it means to be a "man", and that has to start with us.  Why should we be appalled with a man engaging in what he called "locker-room talk" when we are not going to re-evaluate our actions as well?

It is the responsibility of every school leader to evaluate the culture and environment of their school.  Does a woman have to fear working in a school in which they know that comments or jokes are being made that sexually objectify them?  Do the women in the building feel safe and protected, and not just in public but also behind closed doors?  School leaders must be willing to live what the expect in students.

It is the responsibility of every classroom teacher to do the same.  Will our female students enter your classroom knowing that you are there to support them, and will take the actions of other students seriously?  Do our students understand that comments and jokes in poor taste will be dealt with strongly and seriously?  Will our students know that you are not simply acting these values, but living them as well?  Will our students be able to look at you as a positive example?

"It's just locker room talk" cannot cut it anymore.  "Boys will be boys" cannot cut it anymore.  Women deserve to be treated with respect.  They deserve better than being the punch line of a sex joke.  There cannot be excuses for objectified behavior.  There cannot be justification.  There must be consequences for this behavior.  I won't say "our country is better than this", because we are not.  But we "can be better than this", but this will only come with the kind of critical reflection that is the hardest to make, but always promotes the deepest growth.  This requires a reckoning.

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

#MSSRA- "Make Social Studies Relevant Again"

Over the past few weeks, I've been given cause to really think about the state of social studies education, and it's overall place in nationwide curriculum.  I've taught now for 13 years, and I remember starting out and struggling to find a teaching job.  My resume was strong, but I just couldn't find a job.  I also remember being told that this struggle might be the best thing to happen to me in the long run, that it might convince me to move on from this field and find something where my work might be valued.  But I stuck it out, and secured a job in the same school I find myself now.  And I am glad I did.  I wouldn't trade the experiences I've had teaching my students for anything.  But as the years have gone on, I've come to see that there might be a little truth in the advice I received all those years ago.  Although I know that teaching history is vitally important, and I have been blessed by amazing kids who have always made me feel appreciated, the overall view of the importance of history education has diminished to an alarming level.  At a time when history education has never been needed more, it has never mattered less.  And this reality should scare everyone.

I recently had the chance to hear Eric Foner, the noted historian, speak about teaching.  He explained that he had taught for over 50 years, and in that time had seen many changes in the field, most notably in the foci of history, from emphasis on political history to social history to a new age of history in which more focus is given to minorities.  But, Foner argued, what had always stayed true, through 50 years, was the centrality of history in education.  All of that has changed.  In a recent #sunchat discussion on Twitter, teachers shared our current frustrations and blessings.  I expressed my frustration over the lack of value shown to social studies, and heard back from several teachers who had the same frustration.  One teacher explained how her corporation listed social studies as a "special"; others shared how the requirements for students varied, some as few as two years of classes.  How has this happened?  How has social studies become the convenient thing to cut?  How has history education become so devalued?  As it turns out, it is a complex question with a fairly simple answer.

The harsh reality of education is that, not only has social studies education become devalued, our students have as well.  There- I said it.  Education has become a numbers game.  Our schools are testing centers and our students are simply statistics, bubbles on a scantron.  The moment we allowed standardized tests to become the epicenter of education is the moment we devalued our students.  And before I'm written off as just another teacher complaining about tests, think about it, step into a school and find out just how much instructional time is taken away by testing.  These are days teachers don't get back, and sacrifices have to be made.  One of those sacrifices- social studies education.  Social Studies is not a widely tested subject, therefore, in the current paradigm of education, it is of less value, and therefore open to cuts.  The focus is on language arts, math, and science.  Now don't get me wrong- we need people skilled in all three areas, and ready to fill those jobs.  But what are we losing by devaluing history education?

Social studies classrooms are the places where students not only learn about the events of the past, but analyze them, examine them with a critical eye, and discuss them.  These classrooms are where we study the successes and failures of the past, and learn from both.  This is where students have the chance to grow in their ability to engage in a civil discourse, and learn to reason with an informed mind.  I can't guarantee that every student in a social studies classroom is going to leave our walls and pursue a career in history.  But I can guarantee that they will leave a well-taught and organized social studies classroom with skills crucial to being a citizen and a person.  And as the great educator, Lester Laminack said, "We're not here to raise a score.  We're here to raise a human."

So, what do we do?  First, encourage professional organizations within our states to increase their advocacy.  Legislators may not fully understand the effects of testing on subjects like social studies, but they need to know.  Second, let your own voice be heard.  Tune into the work of groups like NCSS and Gilder-Lehrman, and seize upon their passion and resources to "Make Social Studies Relevant Again." But more than anything, continue to be a passionate advocate for social studies.  Continue to put the kids first, and allow your passion for them and the content shine!  Be a positive voice, and continue to fight the good fight.  Our students and our country need you!

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

Encouraging Growth by Encouraging Conversations

Recently we culminated that yearly tradition that is parent/teacher conferences.  I've always loved these conferences, as our conversations with parents are a great time to share the praise that can be found in every student, and the opportunities we each have to grow.  This year, however, I heard, more than ever before, from multiple parents about the conversations that they were having at home, conversations that originated in our croom and were now making their way to dinner tables, car rides, and evening chill time.  To me this is one of the truest signs of learning and is part of the solution to a national problem- our increasing inability to engage in productive conversations about our history and the issues facing the nation right now.  And it has me thinking about how to increase the frequency of these conversations.

The conversational divide in our country is one that even the blindest among us can see.  Of the many problems plaguing our country, this one stands out as both a root cause and a solution.  It's ironic to a degree, with so many talking about "what this country was founded on", that one of the truest, most base founding principles is the one perhaps most lacking right now.  This country was, in so many ways, founded on the conversation.  Few of our Founders and Framers agreed on everything, if anything, and yet this country came to be.  Imperfect for sure, but one capable of growth, an "experiment" that most would argue has gone demonstrably well.  Why- because our Founders talked, certainly with those who agreed with them, but more importantly, with those who didn't.  That is how compromise is made.  That is how understanding is reached.  That is how growth happens.  Today we have evolved into a country in which the popular maxim is "Don't talk about politics at Thanksgiving" or something of the like.  That maxim has to go; we need, so desperately, to talk more, listen more, grow more.  So it warms my heart to hear parents talk about how the discussions we have in class are coming home and continuing.

This brings up, of course, the need for us to model effective discourse.  While I do have a few "absolute truths" which are not debatable in our croom (I will not tolerate comments when it comes to things like racism, sexism, etc.), most topics are worthy of a good back and forth.  But if all we allow is free-for-all debate, we miss the chance to stress the importance of listening.  Debate is not a taboo word, and can be effective when listening is stressed.  I often tell my students that at least half of a great conversation is listening.  I also stress to my students the need to engage in informed discourse.  Imagine a country in which the citizens were willing and able to sit down with anyone, and speak on the issues of a day, a discussion rooted in actual knowledge, and one in which all involved left the conversation with a little more understanding.  Imagine if our crooms were a place where these kinds of discussion were not only allowed, but encouraged, and these conversations carried their way home.  Imagine if we were a nation of citizens content in the conversation, and not focused on being right.  If that is an ideal, call me an idealist.

Even though I know that not every student will leave their time with me and be this kind of citizen, it doesn't stop me from trying.  To that end, a few of our efforts...


  • Don't shy away from the tough topics, but change the way they are discussed.  I teach government, and when we discuss the Constitution, the conversation inevitably steers towards the Courts, and how civil liberties and rights have been interpreted over time.  This leads us to discussions of discrimination, same-sex marriage, abortion, etc., all issues which would easily lead to blow-ups.  But if we want our students to emerge as functional citizens, we can't skip over the topic just because we are afraid of the conversation.  Our crooms have to be the laboratories where the American experiment grows, where informed dialogue is encouraged.
  • Set rules- establish the "lines" for class discussion across which students are not allowed to cross.  A few of our rules- your voice has value, be prepared to support your point with serious evidence (and no, Grandpa doesn't count), speak with respect and listen with more, do not speak until called on (don't try to speak over others).
  • As teachers and discussion facilitators, we have to be prepared to speak from the other side, even if you disagree with it personally.  I know many teachers who share their personal views constantly; there can be some value to that.  But, in general, I keep my thoughts on most issues to myself so that I can argue another side without the students believing me to be biased.  Plus it's fun to see the students try to guess where I stand.
  • Challenge students to speak from a point of view contrary to their own.  I also teach US History, and often put students in groups which will likely push them to see another side, eg. Federalist v. Anti-Federalist, or in government I might have the student present on a Constitutional point different than their own.  Having to argue from the other side of the argument can be a great way to encourage students to look at multiple perspectives.

In the end we have to remember that we are not just teaching a body in a desk; we are teaching the next generation of leaders and citizens.  If we don't encourage them to be better than us, to be willing and able to listen, to work with someone who thinks differently, to realize that our world is far from homogenous, then we fail them.  If we don't foster opportunities for these young people to grow, we fail them.  It's time that we become part of the solution.

Tuesday, October 3, 2017

Admitting Weakness in Education

In a recent Twitter string based in the weekly #sunchat discussion, one of the many great educators, @thnorfar, mentioned that "something about this profession [teaching] makes people fear weakness." This initiated a long string of discussion, and truly got me thinking- do educators fear expressing weakness? If so, why? How important is this to the larger goal of personal and professional growth? If we can admit weakness, then what? In the post below I will try to tackle each question, and flesh out my thoughts.

Do educators fear expressing weakness? If so, why?

The answer to the first question is, I think, a resounding YES! For so long, educators have been the classroom "expert", the "sage on stage",...and the first person to be blamed for something wrong in education. There is a great deal of pressure on teachers to be experts in all matters education. Some of that pressure is good; we should have a deep knowledge of our content, and we should take the time (and have been challenged) to think deeply about classroom practice. But how many teachers are afraid to say, "I don't know", when asked a question.

The truth is that education has become, in many ways, a game in which all things are measured by "winners" and "losers". When it comes to the classroom, it comes down to grades- does your class average match out, do you have enough points possible, do you have enough students getting A's? When it comes to the school, it comes down to test scores- are they high enough, how do they measure against every student in the state and country? In short, education has become more focused on statistics than people, more focused on numbers than growth, more focused on students as commodities rather than as the individuals they truly are. When educators function in this kind of environment and feel the pressure of being blamed if points possible don't meet quality, or if test scores aren't high enough, it sends a clear message- You had better get it all right, or else. It's no surprise that a teacher might be afraid to admit weakness with that reality bearing down upon them.

How important is admitting weakness to the larger goal of personal and professional growth?

Fact- Teachers are human beings. (insert gasp from students) We are human, we are flawed, we have weaknesses. Being able to admit that is absolutely crucial to maintaining oneself in education. I was once scared to say "I don't know" in a classroom, afraid that I might lose the respect of the students in my charge if I couldn't answer that question they asked, afraid of how I might "look" to other professionals in the building and beyond. But the moment I embraced my weaknesses was the moment that I began to experience real growth. Knowing one's weaknesses shows a teacher how much they still have left to learn, and motivates growth.

If we can admit weakness, then what?
It is unfortunate that most teachers work in an environment driven by test scores. It is an environment which is ultimately successful in creating little more than fear, and hinders the important elements of growth in the classroom. While difficult, admitting weakness is crucial for us to grow. Even more importantly, teachers must work to not only admit weakness, but seek out ways to improve. It is one thing to admit weakness; it is quite another to take the steps necessary to better oneself.

The field of education has not only accepted a culture of test scores, but it has also grown comfortable in dated or just flat-out flawed teaching practices. Growth as a professional is as important as anything we do as educators. The on-going challenge before educators, and administrators, is to admit weakness, but never accept it. Only when teachers make the decision to stop growing have they truly failed. Growth is success, and one of the few legitimate constants in this field! But growth means failures along the way. Every journey has detours. But, here is the real question- how far will you drive the wrong way?

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

The True Test of Our Fidelity

Yesterday I was asked by a number of students how I felt about the kneeling controversy, largely because I had made the decision over the weekend prior to change up our schedule for US History to allow us greater time to spend with the Constitution, and I had shared with them that if there was one thing that the debate on social media had shown me over the weekend, it was that more Americans needed to spend time with the document before they claimed themselves to be experts.  When students asked their question, I gave a wishy-washy answer with which I wasn't comfortable.  And so, I've decided to compose my thoughts in my blog.


I would like to preface this post with a few notes.  First- as always, the views expressed in this post (and all posts) are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent my employer.  Second- I have long maintained a personal mission to not interject my personal reactions to political issues because of my desire to help students see multiple perspectives on issues.  Third- I have always stood for the flag and national anthem, and am proud to do so.

When this post began to form in my head, I thought back to something which President Obama said during a town hall.  He was asked by the moderator, Jake Tapper, about his reaction to the initial kneeling of Colin Kaepernick, and he responded by talking about what the flag means to him, and how he feels that the flag and anthem can be a unifying force for all Americans.  But then he also said this,


"I also always try to remind folks that part of what makes this country special is that we respect people's rights to have a different opinion...The test of our fidelity to our Constitution, to freedom of speech, to our Bill of Rights, is not when it's easy, but when it's hard.  We fight sometimes so that people can do things that we disagree with ... As long as they're doing it within the law, then we can voice our opinion objecting to it but it's also their right."


It was the second line that really came back to me- "The test of our fidelity to our Constitution, to freedom of speech, to our Bill of Rights, is not when it's easy, but when it's hard."  Listen- I don't believe in many universal truths, but those that I do, and which will always be a part of any classroom I work in, are that 1. Sexism, racism, and hatred will have no place in our classroom.2. Our students have rights, and when given the environment, can and should express those rights.  Our students should know and feel that they have a voice, and that their voice has value.3. If students (or any American) wants to express their right to a voice, it should be informed.  Ignorant speech is just as dangerous, and often times more so, than keeping quiet when your voice should be heard.If one thing has become very clear over the past few years, it is just how reactionary a people we can be.  Too often we instantly react when we see something that makes us uncomfortable, when the reality is that there is almost always a moment to stop and think, almost always a need to have a conversation, almost always another perspective just as valuable as your own, and almost always a need to empathize.


Regarding this particular controversy, here are my thoughts:


I stand for the flag, but at the end of the day what I am really standing for is the ideal the flag represents.  If we look at the flag in a literal sense, it is really just fabric.  But, as a symbol, it stands for freedom, our Constitution, all that we have fought for over the course of 240 years.  I stand for that because that is how I express my feelings about this history, I stand for that because I believe in what it represents- the rights we all possess as Americans.  A hallmark of those rights is the right we have to express ourselves freely, provided we remain within the law.  The First Amendment speaks of freedom of speech, and does not qualify that with provisions for anyone's comfort.  Protest is central to our nation's history, so much so that it could be argued that protest is a fundamental American principle.  And so, for those who want to express frustration about kneeling protests, you have the right to do so, and I would be the first to defend that right.  If seeing this kind of protest makes you uncomfortable, I can understand that as well.  But you do not have any greater right to express yourself than those who choose to kneel.  We all have equal right to protest, and at a time when we have "protestors" marching through streets, waving Nazi flags, spewing hate speech, and driving their vehicles into groups of other protestors, a peaceful protest, even one that might cause us some discomfort, is far from our biggest problem.  

This may seem like an "easy" issue for many to give voice, and if you have or wish to, that is your prerogative.  But there are rarely issues that are easy; with the exception of a few absolute truths listed above, there is almost always a conversation to be had, almost always multiple perspectives.  In this case, if we examine the root of the initial protests (taking issue with the treatment of blacks and other minorities in the United States), my reality is that I, like most, have no idea what it is to be a black person.  I certainly have no idea what it is to be a black pro athlete.  I would love to have their money, but I would never trade for their history.  Most of us cannot fathom studying our people's history, and seeing so much of it dominated by slavery.  Most of us cannot fathom watching the news and being concerned with the realities of race relations.  How can we take issue with someone expressing their thoughts, exercising rights possessed by them, just because they are highly paid athletes?  Their money doesn't take away their rights as a citizen, and for many of the black men and women, they carry the responsibility of being highly visible and looked up to, and as such it should come as no surprise that they might use their platform to initiate change, or at the least, a conversation.

So, my thoughts- I stand for the flag and will continue to do so.  I hope that these players will think about their protests, and consider why some might take issue with it.  I hope that those who are so quick to condemn them would remember that they are simply exercising a right, knowing full well that there could be consequences for that right.  I would hope that we all might remember that freedom of expression and speech either means something, or it means nothing at all.  I will continue to hope that, one day, we will realize that we are a nation constructed out of compromise, and a desire to live free.  That we are stronger because of our diversity, that the great glue that holds our nation and people together is the great conversation we've lost, and must get back.

And I would hope that the same verocity with which some have approached this issue would be applied to helping others in need, like Americans affected by natural disaster, including the thousands of Puerto Rican Americans without power.


Thursday, August 31, 2017

Taking History Outside of the Classroom- Starting a History Club

Starting a new school year means a new year with one of my favorite student groups- the Frankton History Club.  Nine years ago, students in one of my history classes asked me, "You know Mr. Cline, we have a Spanish Club, a French Club, a Science Club...why don't we have a History Club?"  That question was the spark that led to the creation of what has become one of the most active and popular student organizations in our school, and has, without a doubt, helped to motivate increased student interest in the classes we offer within our department.  Since I've been asked by several colleagues to share what we are and what we do, here is a quick rundown.

I've always approached this organization with two thoughts in mind.  One- I want this to be student-driven as much as possible. Two- I don't want this to become the "field trip club".  To the first point, we generally begin each year with a call-out meeting, and immediately I start talking to kids who might have interest in joining our leadership team.  In the past we have used executive officers, but this limited the minds contributing to planning, and so we have blossomed to a 10 student team.  These students are central to the planning and implementation of the the club's activities.  I obviously want to plan activities which will interest our students, and I want the students to buy-in to the work we are doing.  Having a student-led leadership team does just that.
HC Students with Guest Speaker

From there we work towards a goal of planning one activity per month.  We strive to vary the activities we plan to include field experiences, but also guest speakers, movie nights, community service, etc.  This year we are excited to already have several experiences already in place, including:

  • A trip to the Mississinewa 1812 Reenactment- Indiana doesn't have many historical battles around which to build a living history experience, but one that we can count is the Battle of the Mississinewa, which took place near to our school during the War of 1812.  This reenactment, while built around that battle, focuses more on the country at the time, and gives students a great experience in speaking with historians.  Plus the food is amazing!
HC at 1812
  • Participation in the "Follow the North Star" program at Conner Prairie.  Central Indiana is truly blessed to have this living history museum, built on the grounds of the William Conner estate.  William Conner was an Indiana trader, and his home and land form the basis for an experiential landscape set in 1836 Indiana.  This program revolves around Indiana's role in the Underground Railroad, and places students into the role of an escaped slave.  The experience is intense and thought-provoking!
Conner Prairie

One of the best decisions our club has made was to become affiliated with the National History Club. Through this group, our club is able to sponsor a Senior Award (which features the winner recieving a copy of the HC Book of the Year, which is autographed by the author), and the National History Honors Society.  This group has also started publishing newsletters, monthly emails with resources, and has a Facebook group in which advisors can share ideas.
Honor Society Inductees

The time I have spent with students in this organization has been amongst the best I've spent in 12 years of teaching.  Teachers should always endeavor to build authentic learning experiences into the traditional classroom, but with increasing class sizes, and varied student interest, this isn't always easy.  Our history club has proven to be an outlet for specific study, and has allowed students the chance to study elements of history which interest them on a personal level.  It has provided opportunities for our students to make history real, and that has sparked interest in continuing their research.  If you are a history teacher, consider this opportunity to take what you are teaching outside of the classroom!

Thursday, August 3, 2017

Hamilton: The Creator of the "American Dream"


Over the past week I've had the tremendously good fortune to study the life of Alexander Hamilton, a week which was prefaced with some great reading from experts like Richard Brookhiser and Ron Chernow, and which was peppered with lots of the Hamilton mixtape.  As a history teacher I've obviously been well aware of Hamilton and his impact for some time, and have made every effort to incorporate him into our curriculum, but have met with a lot of blank faces.  Prior to 2009 far too many students had no idea who was on the $10 bill!  All of that, of course, changed when Broadway star Lin Manuel Miranda did this at the White House:

Since then, and certainly after the release of Miranda's hit play, it's been much easier to pique student interest in the man, and I've had a lot of fun the past few years using the play as a way to bring deeper conversation on the Founder into class.  But the nature of that conversation will likely change after this week, as, after the lectures, conversations, and readings, I've come to appreciate Hamilton in a new way, as someone who, even though he wasn't born in the country, may, in many ways, represent the idea of "American potential" more than anyone else of the era, perhaps the first to fully appreciate the idea of the "American dream."

Hamilton's background is famous- born on an island in the Caribbean to a mother who had just spent several months in prison, placed there by her first husband for "whoring".  In reality she had simply fallen for another man, and having not lived with her husband for a long time, she had married this new man- James Hamilton.  The matter finally resolved, the Hamiltons moved to the island of Nevis, where Hamilton, his older brother, and his mother were deserted by his father.  His mother, Rachel, was determined, and started her own business, with her son Alexander as clerk.  Just as things had begun to look up, both Alexander and his mother contracted a fever, from which Alexander would survive, but his mother would die.  At 11 Alexander Hamilton was a penniless orphan, and, in the eyes of many, a bastard.  Fortunately Hamilton was taken on as a clerk for two merchants- David Beekman and Nicholas Cruger- who, after being impressed with his work, sponsored him to go to the colonies so that he could study medicine, after which he would return to the islands as a doctor.

Alexander Hamilton arrives in New York City with only faith in himself, that he offered something that could make a significant place in this country.  Hamilton is, in truth, like so many immigrants who have come to these shores, even still today, escaping a situation which had become untenable, searching for something better, believing that America offered just that.  Hamilton began studying law at King's College (now Columbia), organized his own artillery unit when the Revolution began, impressed General George Washington enough to be placed on the General's staff as an aide-to-camp, led a successful assault at Yorktown, married the daughter of a wealthy and influential member of New York society, and became a successful lawyer.  In short, Alex did good.  It is, of course, his work with the Constitution that stands out with Hamilton.  Active early, along with James Madison, in the work to replace the deeply flawed Articles of Confederation, Hamilton was key in the call for a convention in Philadelphia, and even more central in convincing his state of New York, crucial to the process, to ratify the new document.  Under the new government, which yielded the incomparable George Washington as first president, Hamilton was named the first head of the Treasury, responsible for coming up with a plan to rescue the country from tremendous debt.  To describe his rise as meteroic is putting things mildly.  To describe Hamilton as the epitome of the "American Dream" fulfilled would be right on.

If Hamilton's rise has become well-known, his death has always made him famous.  For all of his gifts, Hamilton's flaws stand out as much.  Hamilton was brash (again putting it mildly), with an insatiable belief in his rightness, and was unafraid to let people know they were wrong.  These qualities did not endear Hamilton to many, including Thomas Jefferson.  It is in this relationship, however, where Hamilton demonstrates his most ardent belief in the "American Dream."  As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton devised a new financial plan intended to not only rescue the nation from crushing debt, but also to set it on a course for the future which would help ensure advancement.  The plan called for an increased focus on manufacturing and industry, which flew in the face of Jefferson's hope for a country of small farms.  Jefferson's hope is hardly surprising, being a Virginia planter who had grown up in an agrarian society- it was all he knew.  In defending his belief in the need for increased manufacturing, Hamilton offers perhaps his greatest testament to an "American Dream"-

"As to the furnishing greater scope for the diversity of talents and dispositions, which discriminate men from each other. This is a much more powerful mean of augmenting the fund of national Industry than may at first sight appear. It is a just observation, that minds of the strongest and most active powers for their proper objects fall below mediocrity and labour without effect, if confined to uncongenial pursuits. And it is thence to be inferred, that the results of human exertion may be immensely increased by diversifying its objects. When all the different kinds of industry obtain in a community, each individual can find his proper element, and can call into activity the whole vigour of his nature. And the community is benefitted by the services of its respective members, in the manner, in which each can serve it with most effect."

In this passage from his "Report on the Subject of Manufactures" (1791), Hamilton uses his own story to serve as evidence of the need for this change of focus- "...minds of the strongest and most active powers for their proper objects fall below mediocrity and labour without effect, if confined to uncongenial pursuits."  In effect, Hamilton argues that, had he stayed on Nevis, had never come to America, his talents would have been wasted.  In other words, if the country remains strictly agrarian, too many of the great minds of this country will be wasted.  Instead Hamilton argues for a national focus on manufacturing and industry as a means of bringing choice to Americans- if you don't want to farm, then here are the plethora of other options.  Later on in the same report Hamilton argues that "...there is, in the genius of the people of this country...it would operate as a forcible reason for giving opportunities to the exercise of the species of talent...".  In short, Hamilton is arguing for a system, for a country, which offers choice of opportunity, that these shores offer far too much talent to remain steadfast in the way things have always been done; in effect, Hamilton is arguing to make things easier for future Hamiltons.

In the end, Hamilton's vision has proven to win out.  This country has become the cradle of diversity that Hamilton envisioned, at least in diversity of choice.  In that lies the foundation for the "American Dream", that anyone could come to this country and find a niche, an avenue in which to apply their talent towards a better life.  Hamilton certainly wasn't the first to move to this land with the dream of a better life, but it could be argued that he was among the first to see the true potential of how big those dreams could be.